Use of modern spinal braces in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis

Cover Page

Abstract

This review presents an analysis of scientific papers on the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with spinal braces.

Insufficient awareness of brace treatment for spinal deformities is often the reason for the negative attitude of orthopedists toward brace therapy and the conservative treatment of scoliosis in general.

In world practice, braces have been the primary and scientifically proven technique for conservative treatment of intermediate forms (grades II–III) of scoliosis in children and adolescents for over 50 years. Modern spinal braces are active orthopedic products that provide three-dimensional correction of the existing deformity and prevent the progression of scoliosis. The main goal of using braces is to eliminate the pathological displacement of the vertebrae, ribs, and pelvis to a physiological state by applying pressure to specific body areas and actively correcting the deformity. Using a brace is the only non-surgical method to treat scoliosis with scientifically proven efficiency. The poor results of using braces to treat scoliosis are primarily due to insufficient correction in the brace, non-compliance with the wearing time, and the lack of adjunctive therapy. The efficiency of brace therapy depends on three main factors that require the personal involvement of the patient: the time of wearing the corset per day, the degree of correction in the corset, and constant (daily) training of the back muscles. The results of recent multicenter studies confirm the efficiency of using braces to treat idiopathic adolescent scoliosis.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Il’ya A. Shavyrin

V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky Scientific and Practical Center of Specialized Medical Care

Email: shailya@ya.ru

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Sergey V. Kolesov

N.N. Priorov National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Orthopedics

Email: dr-kolesov@ya.ru

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, Moscow

Vitaly Yu. Levkov

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: Levkovv@ya.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4104-2886

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow

Andrey N. Lobov

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: a_lobov54@mail.ru

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow

Boris A. Polyaev

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Email: polyaev@sportmed.ru

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow

References

  1. Batrshin IT. Vertebral deformity in children and dispensary care organization. Travmatologiia i ortopediia Rossii. 2011;(4):118–122. (In Russ).
  2. Dubousset J. Importance of the three-dimensional concept in the treatment of scoliotic deformities. In: Dansereau J, editor. International Symposium on 3D Scoliotic deformities joined with the 7th International Symposium on Spinal Deformity and Surface Topography. Germany: GustavFisher Verlag; 1992. P:302–311.
  3. Nikolaev VF, Baranovskaya IA, Andrievskaya AO. Use of a functional correcting brace in treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Genij ortopedii. 2016;(1):44–47. (In Russ).
  4. Skoblin AA. Orthotics in the complex treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine surgery. 2005;(4):25–31. (In Russ).
  5. Shmelev VV, Goncharova LA, Rasulov MD. Current brace therapy in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Astrakhan Medical Journal. 2016;11(1):63–71. (In Russ).
  6. Tesakov DK. Use of brace therapy in patients with idiopathic scoliotic spine deformities. Vestnik travmatologii i ortopedii im. N.N. Priorova. 2011;(3):9–21. (In Russ).
  7. Skoblin AA, Alekseenko IG. New corsets for the treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis of II-III degree. Vestnik travmatologii i ortopedii im. N.N. Priorova. 2003;(4):60–63. (In Russ).
  8. Chumakova AM, Nekorkina OA. Complex application of Chenot corset and therapeutic gymnastics in the treatment of scoliosis in children and adolescents. Molodezhnyi innovatsionnyi vestnik. 2018;7(S1):102. (In Russ).
  9. Tesakov DK. Brace treatment of children and adolescents with grade IV spinal deformities. Spine surgery. 2010;(2):25–34. (In Russ).
  10. Rigo M, Jelacic M. Brace technology thematic series: the 3D Rigo Cheneau-type brace. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 2017;12:10. doi: 10.1186/s13013-017-0114-2
  11. Richards BS, Bernstein RM, D'Amato CR, Thompson GH. Standardization of criteria for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis brace studies: SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30(18):2068–2075; discussion 2076–2067. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000178819.90239.d0
  12. Asher MA, Burton DC. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects. Scoliosis. 2006;1(1):2. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-1-2
  13. Wong MS, Cheng JC, Lam TP, et al. The effect of rigid versus flexible spinal orthosis on the clinical efficacy and acceptance of the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33(12):1360–1365. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31817329d9
  14. Janicki JA, Poe-Kochert C, Armstrong DG, Thompson GH. A comparison of the thoracolumbosacral orthoses and providence orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results using the new SRS inclusion and assessment criteria for bracing studies. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27(4):369–374. doi: 10.1097/01.bpb.0000271331.71857.9a
  15. Circo AB, Coillard C, Rivard CH. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the standardized criteria proposed by the S.R.S. for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis – up to date results. Scoliosis. 2009;4(S2):О54. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-4-s2-o54
  16. Negrini S, Atanasio S, Fusco C, Zaina F. Effectiveness of complete conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (bracing and exercises) based on SOSORT management criteria: results according to the SRS criteria for bracing studies – SOSORT Award 2009 Winner. Scoliosis. 2009;4:19. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-4-19
  17. Aulisa AG, Guzzanti V, Galli M, et al. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB): assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria. Scoliosis. 2009;4:21. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-4-21
  18. Gammon SR, Mehlman CT, Chan W, et al. A comparison of thoracolumbosacral orthoses and SpineCor treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients using the Scoliosis Research Society standardized criteria. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010;30(6):531–538. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181e4f761
  19. Zaborowska-Sapeta K, Kowalski IM, Kotwicki T, et al. Effectiveness of Cheneau brace treatment for idiopathic scoliosis: prospective study in 79 patients followed to skeletal maturity. Scoliosis. 2011;6(1):2. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-6-2
  20. Oakley PA. Is early treatment for mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis superior over the traditional 'watch & wait' approach? A case report with long-term follow-up. J Phys Ther Sci. 2018;30(5):680–684. doi: 10.1589/jpts.30.680
  21. Thompson RM, Hubbard EW, Jo CH, et al. Brace Success Is Related to Curve Type in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99(11):923–928. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.16.01050
  22. Dolan LA, Weinstein SL. Surgical rates after observation and bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an evidence-based review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32(19 Suppl):S91–S100. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318134ead9
  23. Rigo M, Reiter C, Weiss HR. Effect of conservative management on the prevalence of surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6(3–4):209–214. doi: 10.1080/13638490310001642054
  24. Maruyama T, Kitagawa T, Takeshita K, et al. Conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: can it reduce the incidence of surgical treatment? Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6(3-4):215–219. doi: 10.1080/13638490310001642748
  25. Weiss HR, Weiss G, Schaar HJ. Incidence of surgery in conservatively treated patients with scoliosis. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6(2):111–118. doi: 10.1080/13638490310001593446
  26. Negrini S, Atanasio S, Zaina F, et al. End-growth results of bracing and exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prospective worst-case analysis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;135:395–408.
  27. Rowe DE, Bernstein SM, Riddick MF, et al. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-operative treatments for idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79(5):664–674. doi: 10.2106/00004623-199705000-00005
  28. Rigo M, Negrini S, Weiss HR, et al. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection)'. Scoliosis. 2006;1:11. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-1-11
  29. Abbott EG. Correction of lateral curvature of the spine. Journal of Medicine. 1912;17:835–846.
  30. Wong MS, Cheng JC, Lam TP, et al. The effect of rigid versus flexible spinal orthosis on the clinical efficacy and acceptance of the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33(12):1360–1365. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31817329d9
  31. Howard A, Wright JG, Hedden D. A comparative study of TLSO, Charleston, and Milwaukee braces for idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998;23(22):2404–2411. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199811150-00009
  32. Negrini S, Marchini G. Efficacy of the symmetric, patient-oriented, rigid, three-dimensional, active (SPoRT) concept of bracing for scoliosis: a prospective study of the Sforzesco versus Lyon brace. Eura Medicophys. 2007;43(2):171–181; discussion 183–174.
  33. Negrini S, Grivas TB. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments. Scoliosis. 2010;5(1):2. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-5-2
  34. Katz DE, Durrani AA. Factors that influence outcome in bracing large curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 2001;26(21):2354–2361.
  35. Landauer F, Wimmer C, Behensky H. Estimating the final outcome of brace treatment for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis at 6-month follow-up. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6(3–4):201–207. doi: 10.1080/13638490310001636817
  36. Dubonosov YV, Mushkin AY. Questionnaire-based examination of adolescents undergoing brace treatment of scoliosis. Spine Surgery. 2011;(1):026–032. (In Russ).
  37. Shmelev VV, Voroncova OI, Goncharova LA, Rasulov MD. The electrophysiological criteria for the effectiveness of the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with the use of the sheno corset and acupuncture. Fizioterapiia, balʹneologiia i reabilitatsiia. 2016;15(6):301–304. (In Russ).
  38. Negrini S, Donzelli S, Aulisa AG, et al. 2016 SOSORT guidelines: orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 2018;13:3. doi: 10.1186/s13013-017-0145-8
  39. Lein GA, Gusev MG. Comprehensive biomechanical examination of children with initial stages of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine Surgery. 2007;(4):053–057. (In Russ).
  40. Allington NJ, Bowen JR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: treatment with the Wilmington brace. A comparison of full-time and part-time use. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996;78(7):1056–1062.
  41. Sanders AE, Andras LM, Iantorno SE, et al. Clinically Significant Psychological and Emotional Distress in 32% of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. Spine Deform. 2018;6(4):435–440. doi: 10.1016/j.jspd.2017.12.014
  42. Katz DE, Herring JA, Browne RH, et al. Brace wear control of curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(6):1343–1352. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.01142
  43. Rivett L, Rothberg A, Stewart A, Berkowitz R. The relationship between quality of life and compliance to a brace protocol in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:5. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-5
  44. Tesakov DK, Al'zoba SV, Beletskii AV, et al. Medical technology of brace correction of spinal deformities. Spine Surgery. 2010;(4):30–40. (In Russ).
  45. Birbaumer N, Flor H, Cevey B, et al. Behavioral treatment of scoliosis and kyphosis. J Psychosom Res. 1994;38(6):623–628. doi: 10.1016/0022-3999(94)90060-4
  46. MacLean WE, Jr., Green NE, Pierre CB, Ray DC. Stress and coping with scoliosis: psychological effects on adolescents and their families. J Pediatr Orthop. 1989;9(3):257–261.
  47. Nicholson GP, Ferguson-Pell MW, Smith K, et al. The objective measurement of spinal orthosis use for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28(19):2243–2250; discussion 2250-2241. doi: 10.1097/01.BRS.0000085098.69522.52
  48. Emans JB, Kaelin A, Bancel P, et al. The Boston bracing system for idiopathic scoliosis. Follow-up results in 295 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1986;11(8):792–801.
  49. doi: 10.1097/00007632-198610000-00009
  50. Kessler JI. Efficacy of a new computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2008;17(4):207–211. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0b013e3283046117
  51. Sankar WN, Albrektson J, Lerman L, et al. Scoliosis in-brace curve correction and patient preference of CAD/CAM versus plaster molded TLSOs. J Child Orthop. 2007;1(6):345–349. doi: 10.1007/s11832-007-0066-9
  52. Weiss HR, Werkmann M, Stephan C. The ScoliOlogiC "Cheneau light" brace–does the reduction of material affect the desired correction? Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;123:250–254.
  53. Wong MS, Cheng JC, Lo KH. A comparison of treatment effectiveness between the CAD/CAM method and the manual method for managing adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2005;29(1):105–111. doi: 10.1080/17461550500069547
  54. Castro FP. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, bracing, and the Hueter-Volkmann principle. J Spine. 2003;3(3):180–185. doi: 10.1016/s1529-9430(02)00557-0
  55. Chung CL, Kelly DM, Sawyer JR, et al. Mechanical Testing of a Novel Fastening Device to Improve Scoliosis Bracing Biomechanics for Treating Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Appl Bionics Biomech. 2018;2018:7813960. doi: 10.1155/2018/7813960
  56. Clin J, Aubin CE, Sangole A, et al. Correlation between immediate in-brace correction and biomechanical effectiveness of brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35(18):1706–1713. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181cb46f6
  57. Grivas TB, Vasiliadis E, Malakasis M, et al. Intervertebral disc biomechanics in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;123:80–83.
  58. Lein GA, Gusev MG, Palov IV. Izgotovlenie korsetov po tipu Sheno s ispol'zovaniem CAD/CAM-tekhnologii na osnove klassifikatsii M. Rigo. In: proceedings of the scientific and practical conferences «Ortoterapiya mezhvedomstvennoe i mezhdistsiplinarnoe vzaimodeistviya v klinicheskom ortezirovanii i reabilitatsii»; Saint Petersburg, May 18–19, 2018. Saint Petersburg; 2018:33. (In Russ).
  59. Levkov VY, Panyukov MV, Andronova LB, et al. Conscious correction of scoliosis and posture disorders: Guideline. Moscow; 2020. (In Russ).

Statistics

Views

Abstract: 166

PDF (Russian): 2

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Eco-Vector



This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies