Parkinson’s disease: epidemiology and pathogenesis

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This review presents data on the etiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), eLibrary, CyberLeninka, and from monographs and textbooks. The prevalence, classification, genetic variability, main pathogenetic links, and potential disease development mechanisms are described. Both classic Parkinson’s disease and variable manifestations of parkinsonism are considered. The factors that contribute to disease progression and inhibit its development are described. The main hypotheses of the pathogenetic mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease are presented. These are protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired protein purification systems, neuroinflammation, and pathology of the gut-brain axis.

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Denis A. Borozdenko

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6797-9722
Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow

Vladislava I. Bogorodova

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow

Nina M. Kiseleva

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1754-9051

MD, Dr. Sci. (Biol.), Professor

Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow

Vadim V. Negrebetsky

N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6852-8942

MD, Cand. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovityanova str., 117997, Moscow


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Figure 1. Risk factors of Parkinson’s disease.

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2. Figure 2. Models for the development of two types of Parkinson’s disease [58].

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